|My age:||I'm 29 years old|
Vietnamese Americans are a rapidly growing minority group in the United States, yet little is known about their health status. Chronic medical conditions and self-rated health of older Vietnamese Americans were compared with those of non-Hispanic white adults living in California using the and California Health Interview Surveys CHISs.
The CHIS employed a random-digit-dial telephone survey, and its sample is representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The sample included Vietnamese and 25, non-Hispanic white adults aged 55 and older.
Vietnamese and non-Hispanic white adults were compared in terms of limitations in activities of daily living, chronic medical conditions diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, asthmamental health care, and self-reported health, adjusting for age, sex, and education. Clinicians caring for older Vietnamese individuals should be aware of the high risk for mental health needs in this population and should initiate discussions about mental health with their patients. Further research is needed to better understand why older Vietnamese Americans are at higher risk for worse self-reported health than older white adults.
Vietnamese Americans are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the United States.
Vietnamese refugees have come to the United States in multiple waves since the end of the Vietnam War. The first wave of refugees came inwhen many Vietnamese with ties to the U. The third phase, from toconsisted of Amerasian children of U. The fourth phase of immigration began inwhen the U. These former political prisoners have been found to have problems adjusting to life in the United States, possibly because they migrated later in life. Little research has been conducted regarding the health status of older Vietnamese Americans.
Self-reported health, including chronic diseases, physical health, and mental health, were evaluated. CHIS is a random-digit-dial RDD telephone survey of California households and is representative of the state's noninstitutionalized population. CHIS interviews one sample adult in each household.
The questionnaire underwent extensive cultural adaptation and refereed translation processes to maximize cross-cultural equivalence across questionnaire items. Detailed information about the sampling methodology and cultural adaptation and translation of the survey are available elsewhere. The sample for these analyses was restricted to adults aged 55 and older who reported their race or ethnicity as Vietnamese or non-Hispanic white. The sample is weighted to for the complex sample de and to be representative of California's population in terms of age, sex, race and ethnicity, and rural—urban residence.
Survey items consisted of demographic characteristics including age, sex, country of birth, years living in the United States, marital status, health insurance status, level of education, English language proficiency, and language spoken at home. Country of birth was recoded into two United States and another country. Marital status was recoded into married or other. Having any type of health insurance was coded as yes or no.
Horny cougars from newcastle
Those who had health insurance were asked whether their insurance covered mental health treatment yes, no, don't know. Self-reported English proficiency was dichotomized into very well or well versus not well or not at all.
Those who responded affirmatively to this question were then asked whether any medical provider e. Respondents also were asked whether they had received treatment from a specialist psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, or counselor for emotional or mental problems in the 12 months. Answer were yes or no for each question. These items were assessed in the survey only. The SF domains were all scored on a 0 to possible range, with a higher score indicating better health.
Self-reported health status of vietnamese and non-hispanic white older adults in california
Individual SF items were scored using a standard T -score metric relative to the U. Chi-square tests and t-tests were conducted to examine differences in the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the two groups.
Logistic regression was used to investigate the adjusted odds of having any ADL limitations and having specific chronic diseases diabetes mellitus, hyper-tension, heart disease, asthmaadjusting for sex, age, and education.
Logistic regression was conducted to examine the odds of having mental health needs; discussing them with a medical provider; and receiving treatment from a mental health specialist, with adjustment for sex, age, education, and having mental health insurance. Ordinary least square regression analyses were conducted to compare SF scores of Vietnamese and non-Hispanic white participants, adjusting for sex, age, and education.
Sociodemographic characteristics for the two groups are presented in Table 1. The Vietnamese respondents were ificantly younger than the non-Hispanic white respondents mean Seventy-four percent of the Vietnamese sample had lived in the United States for at least 10 years.
Older Vietnamese adults also reported ificantly lower levels of education than non-Hispanic white adults. Eighty percent of the Vietnamese respondents reported having limited English-speaking proficiency.
Table 2 shows the unadjusted prevalence rates and the adjusted odds ratios aORs for having limitations in ADLs, chronic diseases, and mental health care concerns. However, there were ificant differences between the Vietnamese and non-Hispanic white respondents in their reports of mental health care. Note: Analyses examining ADLs and chronic diseases are adjusted for sex, age, and education. Analyses examining mental health concerns are adjusted for sex, age, education, and having mental health insurance.
Bodily pain, role limitations due to physical health, and energy levels vitality were not ificantly different between Vietnamese and whites using the conservative Bonferroni adjusted P-valueo. Note: Scores range between 0 lowest and highestwith higher scores representing better health.
Means transformed using standard T -score metric relative to the U. This study found that older Vietnamese Americans living in California were more likely than white respondents to report needing help for mental or emotional problems but less likely to have discussions with their primary care providers about these problems and thus may not be getting the mental health care that they need.
Vietnamese respondents also reported worse health than white respondents on several SF domains. The finding of high rates of mental health needs in older Vietnamese Americans is consistent with research in younger populations of Vietnamese refugees that showed high prevalence rates of depression and posttraumatic stress syndrome.
This finding is consistent with from a national study showing that providers were less likely to discuss mental health concerns with Asian Americans. Other studies of younger individuals have shown that Asian Americans tend to underuse mental health services 1819 and that those who are immigrants foreign born tend to use services less than those born in the United States.
In addition, this study found that older Vietnamese Americans reported worse health status than non-Hispanic white respondents. Research done among Vietnamese refugees in Australia found similar findings, with Vietnamese adults reporting more disability from mental health problems as measured according to the SF than white Australians. Further study is needed to elucidate the reasons for the substantially poorer self-reported health in Vietnamese older adults.
Mature naked local women
It is possible that other chronic diseases not directly measured in this study e. Furthermore, Vietnamese Americans have been found to underuse health services because of barriers such as language, medical insurance, and transportation. This study adds to the scant literature available regarding the health status of older Vietnamese Americans.
The of this study are consistent with research on the health status of some minority groups in the United States. Older African-American, Mexican, and Korean adults have reported poorer health than older non-Hispanic white adults.
Girls and lust for sex in antioch california
This study has several limitations. First, CHIS is a population-based sample drawn from the civilian, non-institutionalized adult population in California living in households with access to a residential telephone.
Excluded from the study are individuals without residential telephones, those unable to answer the telephone, and those living in group quarters of unrelated adults a common situation among recent immigrants with limited income. It is likely, therefore, that these findings underestimate the health disparities between older Vietnamese and non-Hispanic white adults. Furthermore, individuals who have limited English-language proficiency are less likely to participate in research, 33 although the CHIS was offered in English and Vietnamese by telephone interview.
In addition, because the CHIS samples are located in California, these findings may not be generalizable to older Vietnamese adults in other areas of the United States, although California is home to the largest Vietnamese population in the world outside of Vietnam. Health status has been found to be associated with lower education and income levels in other minority groups. The findings from this study suggest that older Vietnamese Americans are at greater risk for having unmet mental health needs and worse self-reported health than older non-Hispanic white adults.
Clinicians who care for these patients need to be cognizant of the mental health needs of their older Vietnamese patients. Research has shown that Vietnamese patients are more likely than white patients to receive mental health treatment from their primary care providers, as opposed to visiting mental health specialists. The experiences of Vietnamese refugees resettled in Australia have shown that mental health—related disability may decrease over time with appropriate treatment.
Nevertheless, more studies are needed to confirm and to better understand the physical and mental health status and health utilization patterns of older Vietnamese adults in the United States. Furthermore, additional surveillance and targeted interventions of health promotion and disease prevention are needed to care for this vulnerable population. Sponsor's Role: The funding agencies were not involved in the de, methods, subject recruitment, Adult seeking casual sex White water California 92282 collection, analysis, or preparation of the manuscript.
Author Contributions: Sorkin: study concept and de, data analysis, interpretation of data, and critical revision of manuscript. Tan: study concept and de, interpretation of data, drafting of manuscript. Hays: study concept and de, interpretation of data, critical revision of manuscript, and acquisition of funding.
Mangione: study concept and de, critical revision of manuscript, and acquisition of funding. Ngo-Metzger: study concept and de, acquisition of funding, acquisition of data, interpretation of data, and drafting and critical revision of manuscript. Conflict of Interest: The authors have no financial disclosures and no conflict of interests to disclose related to this manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Am Geriatr Soc. Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct 2. Angela L. Ron D. Find articles by Ron D. Carol M. Find articles by Carol M.
Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer.